research / ACRI Facts

The Australia-Taiwan relationship January 2020-June 2022

July 05 2022

Australia’s position on Taiwan is laid out by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT): [1]

Australia’s Joint Communiqué with the PRC [People’s Republic of China] recognised the Government of the PRC as China’s sole legal government, and acknowledged the position of the PRC that Taiwan was a province of the PRC.

The terms of our Joint Communiqué dictate the fundamental basis of Australia’s one-China policy – the Australian Government does not recognise the ROC [Republic of China] as a sovereign state and does not regard the authorities in Taiwan as having the status of a national government.

The relationship between Australia and Taiwan has recently become closer in many domains including trade, investment and people-to-people links. This closening of ties has occurred over a period in which Australia’s relationship with the PRC has grown increasingly strained.

Regular bilateral dialogues include the Joint Energy and Minerals Trade and Investment Cooperation (JEMTIC) Consultations, Bilateral Economic Consultations (BEC) and the Agricultural Working Group. Since the first Australia-Taiwan trade talks in 1990, Taiwan became Australia's 8th largest export market in 2020, with exports for that year totalling $13.9. billion.[2] Two-way trade (goods and services) between Australia and Taiwan totalled $16.1 billion in 2020,[3] down from $20 billion in 2019[4] (this drop was, in part, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic). Taiwan was Australia's 12th largest trade partner that year. Australia's largest exports to Taiwan are coal, iron ore, natural gas, personal travel and agrifood. The country’s major imports from Taiwan are refined petroleum, telecom equipment and integrated circuits.

Australia’s 2021 Census recorded 49,511 Taiwan-born people in Australia, an increase of roughly 70 percent from the 2011 Census.[5] Prior to the impositions of COVID-19-related restrictions on international travel, in 2019 there were 194,610 short-term visitor arrivals from Taiwan and 18,513 students from Taiwan enrolled to study in Australia.[6] Australia has been the leading destination for Taiwanese working holiday visa applicants.[7] In the financial year ending in 2019, 17,641 Taiwanese travelled to Australia on working holiday visas (the number reached a high of 35,716 in 2011-12).[8] Australia is the only advanced nation to have a quota free visa requirement for Taiwanese applicants.[9]

This fact sheet lists official statements on, and notable developments in, the Australia-Taiwan relationship between January 2020-June 2022.

 

2020

January 12 2020

The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) issued a media release after Taiwan’s January 11 2020 elections which stated: ‘Australia congratulates Dr Tsai Ing-wen and her party on her re-election…’ [10]

January 13 2020

Then-Shadow Foreign Minister Penny Wong extended her congratulations to Taiwan following the elections on Twitter: ‘Good to see democracy exercised in Taiwan in a peaceful and inclusive manner. Congratulations to [Tsai Ing-wen] on her re-election.’[11]

January 23 2020

The Australia-Taiwan organic equivalency arrangement (2020-01) came into effect.[12] The agreement allows each side to smoothen organic certification processes in two-way bilateral trade.

March 3 2020

Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen met the then-head of the Australian Office, Taipei (AOT),  Gary Cowan, to ‘thank the Australian government for actively supporting Taiwan’s international participation’, particularly in the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization. She expressed hope that the two countries could ‘begin negotiations regarding an economic cooperation agreement as soon as possible’.[13]

April 28 2020

The Sydney Morning Herald reported that Taiwan had ‘called on Australia to back its campaign to join the World Health Organization’. The outlets had been provided a letter by Taiwan’s Health Minister Chen Shih-chung which read, ‘If it is indeed WHO’s mission to ensure the highest attainable standard of health for every human being, then WHO needs Taiwan just as Taiwan needs WHO.’[14]

April 30 2020

A DFAT spokesperson told Australian media that ‘The challenge of COVID-19 demands a determined, global response. The WHO must therefore maintain a close working relationship with all health authorities. Where statehood is a requirement for membership of organisations, we support Taiwan's participation as an observer or guest, consistent with our one-China policy.’[15]

May 14 2020

Flowing on from the DFAT spokesperson’s April 30 comments, the AOT published a media release which read, ‘Australia supports Taiwan’s involvement in the World Health Organization’s work and Taiwan’s participation as an observer at the World Health Assembly.’[16]

July 28 2020

The joint statement issued by the 30th Australia-United States Ministerial Consultations (AUSMIN), in which Australian foreign and defence ministers met with their US counterparts, included the following paragraph on Taiwan:[17]

The Secretaries and Ministers re-affirmed Taiwan’s important role in the Indo-Pacific region as well as their intent to maintain strong unofficial ties with Taiwan and to support Taiwan’s membership in international organizations where statehood is not a prerequisite.  Where statehood is a prerequisite for membership, both sides support Taiwan’s meaningful participation as an observer or guest. The United States and Australia highlighted that recent events only strengthened their resolve to support Taiwan. They reiterated that any resolution of cross-Strait differences should be peaceful and according to the will of the people on both sides, without resorting to threats or coercion. They also committed to enhancing donor coordination with Taiwan, with a focus on development assistance to Pacific Island countries.

July 29 2020

Then-US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo during the press conference following AUSMIN commended the Morrison government for ‘your efforts to include Taiwan in the World Health Assembly, so that the world might benefit from that vigorous democracy’s wisdom in dealing with the outbreak.’[18]

October 8 2020

Former Australian prime minister Malcolm Turnbull delivered a virtual address to the annual Yushan Forum, hosted by the Taiwan-Asia Exchange Foundation, in which he discussed concerns about ‘China under Xi Jinping which has become more authoritarian at home and more aggressive abroad’ and emphasised Australia and Taiwan’s shared values. He stated, ‘[W]e must work together in the region as a mesh of countries with shared values to protect our sovereignty’ in order to ensure that ‘we don’t move into a world where might is right’. [19]

December 2 2020

After Beijing’s announcement on November 27 2020 that it would place tariffs of up to 200 percent on Australian wine imports, President Tsai Ing-wen said that Taiwan would back Australians at a time when they are ‘under tremendous pressure’, prompting Taiwanese legislators to take promotional photographs holding Australian wine (joining the ‘freedom wine’ campaign).[20]

December 7 2020

Taiwan’s Foreign Minister, Joseph Wu, in an interview with The Guardian, called on ‘like-minded countries’, including Australia, the US, Europe and Japan, to ‘come together’, saying, ‘[W]e will be stronger together.’[21]

 

2021

February 5 2021

During a Lunar New Year address to staff, new AOT head Jenny Bloomfield said, ‘[O]ur relationship [with Taiwan] is at a high water mark, and we should use the high level of recognition of Taiwan in Australia to build an even deeper and stronger relationship.’[22]

March 9 2021

The AOT head met the president of the Legislative Yuan You Si-kun and five other Taiwanese legislators.[23] In a Facebook post following the meeting Mr You said:[24]

Taiwan and Australia closely cooperate on trade, investment, culture and education. Most importantly, Taiwan and Australia share the values of freedom and democracy and value human rights and the rule of law.

April 1 2021

The US Charge d’Affaires in Australia, Michael Goldman, stated during an Australian National University podcast interview that Taiwan was ‘an important component’ of strategic planning between the US and its allies, including Australia.[25]

April 13 2021

The AOT head met Taiwan’s Minister of Health and Welfare, Chen Shih-chung, and the president of Taiwan’s Control Yuan, Chen Chu. In addition to thanking Taiwan for providing Australia with facemasks to combat the pandemic, Ms Bloomfield emphasised trade and education links, and commonalities between Taiwan and Australia in terms of human rights.[26]

April 15 2021

The Chief of the Australian Defence Force, General Angus Campbell, tells the Raisina Dialogue, India’s flagship conference on geopolitics and geoeconomics:[27]

Australia is very clear that the future of China and Taiwan needs to be a future that is resolved peacefully. Conflict over the island of Taiwan would be a disastrous experience for the peoples of the region and it's something that we should all work to avoid

April 16 2021

The Australian Financial Review reported that ‘sources have told [the news outlet] that the Australian Defence Force was planning for a potential worst-case scenarios if the United States and China clashed over Taiwan.’[28]

April 25 2021

During an Anzac Day interview then-Defence Minister Peter Dutton said that he did not think a military conflict over Taiwan ‘should be discounted’.[29] This followed a missive written on the same day by Department of Home Affairs Secretary Michael Pezzullo saying ‘the drums of war beat’.[30]

May 6 2021

In an interview with The Australian Financial Review published on May 6, Taiwan’s Foreign Minister, Joseph Wu, said that while an invasion of Taiwan was not ‘imminent’, ‘[the PRC] seems to be preparing for a final assault against Taiwan.’ He went on to say:[31]

We are happy to see that Australia is playing a bigger and more important role in the Indo-Pacific but talking about the military co-operation and all that in between Australia and Taiwan, that might be [going] a little bit too far. 

Mr Wu also flagged that Taiwan would likely apply to accede to the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) later in the year and called for a revival of free trade agreement talks between Taiwan and Australia.

May 6 2021

Asked whether Australia ‘stand[s] with’ Taiwan following Mr Wu’s remarks about the PRC’s preparations for ‘a final assault against Taiwan’, then-Prime Minister Scott Morrison alluded to alliance commitments: ‘We’ve always honoured all of our arrangements in the Indo-Pacific, particularly our alliance with the United States…’

In the same interview Mr Morrison incorrectly characterised Australian policy on Taiwan, saying, ‘We’ve always understood the one system, two countries arrangement and we will continue to follow our policies there.’[32]

May 12 2021

Mr Morrison, asked by SBS News whether he had made a mistake in his characterisation of Australian policy on Taiwan on May 6 2021, replied, ‘No.’[33]

May 19 2021

Referring to the April 25 2021 comments by Australia’s Home Affairs Secretary (‘drums of war beat’) and Mr Dutton (military conflict over Taiwan ‘should not be discounted’), Senator Wong said in a speech, ‘Australians don’t want their leaders to bow to coercion. But neither do they expect their leaders to recklessly beat the drums of war.’[34]

May 25 2021

The AOT, the American Institute in Taiwan and the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in a joint press release articulated ‘support for Taiwan’s meaningful engagement with the World Health Organization and participation as an observer in the World Health Assembly.’[35]

June 1 2021

During Senate Estimates, Senator Wong asked General Campbell about his April 15 2021 remarks at the Raisina Dialogue. General Campbell said he stood by his views. He went on to say:[36]

I think diplomacy is always the first preference in dealing with issues between nations and, indeed, at a less formal level, it's the manner in which we deal with issues between people. I think it's fundamental to seek to resolve concerns or disagreements peacefully.

He said further that ‘defence forces don’t structure and shouldn’t be singularly focused on one idea of conflict or war or a particular nation or a circumstance.’

June 3 2021

During Senate Estimates, Senator Wong asked a DFAT official to explain Australia’s one-China policy. The official stated: [37]

We remain committed to the one-China policy. We recognise the government of the People's Republic of China, in Beijing, as China's sole legal government. We acknowledge the position of the PRC – that Taiwan is a part of China. This means we don't regard Taiwan as a nation-state or treat it as such.

The official confirmed that ‘there has been no change in our position on Taiwan.’

Asked whether there had been ‘any change over this last couple of years in the government’s stance on the economic trade and other engagement with Taiwan?’ the DFAT official responded, ‘Only that we could seek to increase those ties wherever we can and seek to advance that relationship.’

June 4 2021

Senator Payne, asked about then-Prime Minister Morrison’s ‘one country, two systems’ description in relation to Taiwan during Senate Estimates, replied: ‘Australia's one-China policy has not changed.’[38]

June 9 2021

The joint statement issued by the ninth Japan-Australia 2+2 Foreign and Defence Ministerial Consultations, in which Australian foreign and defence ministers met with their Japanese counterparts, included the following reference to the Taiwan Strait:[39]

We underscore the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait and encourage the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues.

June 16 2021

Asked about the Taiwanese Foreign Minister’s May 6 2021 remarks that the PRC was preparing for war, Senator Payne said that while she took ‘the observations made by Dr Wu seriously’, ‘the job of responsible countries, whether it’s Australia, allies like the United States, is to work on a path that best preserves the regional order, that avoids us getting to the point of conflict.’[40]

July 29 2021

The AOT and Taiwan’s Ministry of Economic Affairs hosted the Australia-Taiwan Hydrogen Trade and Investment Dialogue to ‘discuss opportunities for Australia and Taiwan in priority low emissions technologies such as hydrogen.’[41]

This is was the first ministerial-level Hydrogen Trade and Investment Dialogue between Australia and Taiwan.[42]

August 5 2021

Taiwan’s Vice President, Lai Ching-te, met with the AOT head, ‘pledging to advance bilateral relations across the board.’ The Vice President nominated energy and minerals as areas in which further cooperation could be undertaken, as well as advancing collaborative hydrogen energy development.[43]

August 11 2021

Australia, Taiwan, the US and Japan held a virtual meeting on green energy under the Global Cooperation and Training Framework.[44]

August 12 2021

The AOT head met Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen. President Tsai noted Taiwan and Ausralia’s shared values and commitment to prosperity and security in the region. She also noted the steady growth of trade between Taiwan and Australia and conveyed Taiwan’s aspirations for the expedition of negotiations for an economic cooperation agreement.[45] 

August 30 2021

Then-Foreign Minister Payne and then-Defence Minister Dutton met with their French counterparts for the inaugural Australia-France 2+2 Ministerial Consultations. Their joint statement included the following paragraph on Taiwan:[46]

Ministers underscored the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait and encouraged the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues. They expressed support for Taiwan's meaningful participation in international organisations, in accordance with the organisations' statutes, to strengthen global cooperation on relevant issues.

September 7 2021

Taiwanese and Australian trade officials attended the 26th Taiwan-Australia Joint Energy and Minerals, Trade and Investment Cooperation Consultations (JEMTIC) in Taipei.[47]

September 17 2021

The joint statement issued by the 31st AUSMIN (2021) included the following paragraph on Taiwan:[48]

Both sides stated their intent to strengthen ties with Taiwan, which is a leading democracy and a critical partner for both countries... emphasised their support for Taiwan’s meaningful participation in international organizations… [and] reiterated continued support for a peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues without resorting to threats or coercion. The American and Australian counterparts expressed their shared commitment to enhance donor coordination with Taiwan in the Pacific.

September 17 2021

While in Washington DC for AUSMIN Mr Dutton during a Sky News interview said: [49]

The Chinese spokespersons for the Communist Party are very clear about their intention towards Taiwan… As to whether, such as in Hong Kong, they decide to do something in regard to Taiwan, in that case what is the American response and we obviously have an alliance with the US, that’s been in force for 70 years – so we need to be realistic about that.

September 22 2021

Taiwan formally applied to accede to the CPTPP.[50]

September 24 2021

Then-Trade Minister Dan Tehan said of Taiwan’s CPTPP application that ‘Australia will work with the CPTPP membership to consider Taiwan’s application on a consensus basis’. 

The Australian reported that ‘a senior diplomatic source involved in the process [said] that Australia, Japan and Canada… had been in discussions exploring a path for Taiwan’s entry.’[51]

October 4 2021

During a television interview with the ABC, Taiwan’s Foreign Minister Joseph Wu stated: [52]

We would like to engage in security or intelligence exchanges with other like-minded partners, Australia included, so Taiwan is better prepared to deal with the war situation.

He also said:

As far as I know, Australia has been one of those most vocal members in supporting Taiwan's participation in CPTPP.

We have been discussing with each other privately for quite some time and we understand the Australian support and we appreciate the Australian support.

October 5 2021

Commenting on the PRC sending nearly 150 warplanes over four consecutive days into Taiwan’s air defence zone, a DFAT spokesperson said:[53]

Australia is concerned by China’s increased air incursions into Taiwan’s air defence zone over the past week.

Resolution of differences over Taiwan and other regional issues must be achieved peacefully through dialogue and without the threat or use of force or coercion.

October 7 2021

On the PRC’s increased air incursions into Taiwan’s air defence zone, Senator Payne said in an interview:[54]

[W]e have been concerned by tensions across the Taiwan Strait sharpening in recent months. It is clear that conflict is in no one's interests here and we are concerned by increased air incursions by China into Taiwan's air defence zone in the past week. 

So our very strong position is that a resolution of differences over Taiwan must be achieved peacefully, through dialogue and without the threat or the use of force or coercion.

October 7 2021

President Tsai Ing-wen met former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott during a visit by Mr Abbott to Taiwan, and conveyed thanks for his ‘[support for] the signing of a Taiwan-Australia economic cooperation agreement and Taiwan’s inclusion in the CPTPP.’[55]

Mr Abbott told President Tsai, ‘[P]erhaps in recent times, countries like Australia have over emphasised fostering democracy in places where it has never taken root and under emphasised protecting democracy in places where it has.’

October 7 2021

Of Mr Abbott’s visit, then-Prime Minister Morrison stated that he was ‘there as a private citizen. So what he’s said and what messages he passed, he passed on in that capacity.’[56]

Then-Opposition Leader Anthony Albanese said, ‘Tony Abbott is a private citizen… And it's a matter for him. Labor and the Coalition both have the same policy, a policy of one-China, a policy that recognises China, in terms of Beijing, in terms of our diplomatic, formal relationships. That doesn't stop there being people-to-people relationships outside of that.’[57]

October 8 2021

Mr Abbott in a keynote speech to the annual Yushan Forum stated that it was ‘quite possible that Beijing could lash out disastrously very soon… That’s why Taiwan’s friends are so important right now: to… let Beijing know that any attempt at coercion would have incalculable consequences.’[58]

He concluded, ‘Nothing is more pressing right now, than solidarity with Taiwan, if we want a better world…’

October 12 2021

The Chair of the Trade Sub-Committee of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, overseeing the inquiry into expanding CPTPP membership, stated in a media release that ‘The Committee has received an overwhelming number of submissions in support of Taiwan acceding into the CPTPP.’[59]

October 23 2021

Then-Trade Minister Dan Tehan in an interview said that Australia wanted to progress its energy partnership with Taiwan, saying, ‘We see real opportunities when it comes to LNG [liquefied natural gas], when it comes to liquid hydrogen, and when it comes to renewables technology.’[60]

October 26 2021

The AOT announced the Australia-Taiwan Friendship Year to mark the 40th anniversary of its establishment. To mark the occasion, the AOT head along with Taiwan’s National Culture and Arts Foundation launched an arts exchange partnership ‘to support cultural and arts exchanges between our young peoples, and particularly our Indigenous peoples.’[61]

November 10 2021

Former Australian prime minister Paul Keating during a National Press Club appearance stated: [62]

Taiwan is not a vital Australian interest. We have no alliance with Taipei… We do not recognise it as a sovereign state. And under ANZUS, ANZUS commits us to consult in the event of an attack on US forces but not an attack by US forces.

November 13 2021

With regard to what Australia might do in the event of military conflict between the US and the PRC over Taiwan, then-Defence Minister Peter Dutton told The Australian: [63]

It would be inconceivable that we wouldn’t support the US in an action if the US chose to take that action… maybe there are circumstances where we wouldn’t take up that option, [but] I can’t conceive of those circumstances.

November 15 2021

The AOT head visited Kaohsiung, Taiwan’s second largest city, ‘to promote Australia’s partnership with southern Taiwan and with Kaohsiung’. The AOT in partnership with the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts hosted a launch of the ‘Australia-Taiwan Friendship Year’ in Kaohsiung. [64]

November 18 2021

Asked about Mr Dutton’s rhetoric on Taiwan, Senator Payne stated, ‘[C]onflict is in no one’s interests… As Minister Dutton says, war would be devastating and we need to take every action to prevent it.’[65]

November 26 2021

In a speech to the National Press Club Mr Dutton noted that on Taiwan, ‘Yes there would be a terrible price of action, but the analysis must also extend to the price of inaction. If Taiwan is taken, surely the Senkakus are next.’[66]

The speech was ‘strongly’ supported by Morrison who described it as ‘spot on when it comes to the uncertain environment in which we live.’[67]

November 26 2021

Former prime minister Keating issued a statement on Mr Dutton’s stance on Taiwan, stating it was ‘inappropriate to Australia’s vulnerable geographic circumstances.’[68] He said:

Peter Dutton, by his incautious utterances, persists in injecting Australia into a potentially explosive situation in north Asia – a situation Australia is not in any position to manage or control, let alone to succeed and prosper in.

November 30 2021

The AOT head met Eric Chu, the chairman of Taiwan’s major opposition party, the Kuomintang (KMT). Mr Chu said that the KMT highly valued its friendship with Australia. Ms Bloomfield emphasised that Australia is the home to many Taiwanese migrants, and that the two sides share an intimate and extensive trade partnership, as well as common values.[69]

November 30 2021

The Guardian reported that Taiwan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs welcomed Mr Dutton’s November 26 2021 speech and Mr Morrison’s endorsement of it, with a ministry spokesperson telling the news outlet:[70]

Both Prime Minister Morrison and Defence Minister Dutton’s remarks reiterated the Australian government’s deep concern for security and peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait and the need to guard against the use of Chinese force against Taiwan, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs would like to express its sincere gratitude for this.

 

2022

January 21 2022

The joint statement issued by the Australia-United Kingdom Ministerial Consultations (AUKMIN) 2022, in which Australian foreign and defence ministers met with their UK counterparts, included the following paragraph on Taiwan:[71]

Ministers underscored the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait and encouraged the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues without the threat or use of force or coercion. They expressed support for Taiwan’s meaningful participation in international organisations, as a member where statehood is not a prerequisite and as an observer or guest where it is.

January 25 2022

Asked during a radio interview, ‘Are you worried that if Russia invades Ukraine, could China use this as a distraction of sorts to make a move on Taiwan?’, Senator Payne replied, ‘I don’t think we can make those equations.’[72]

February 9 2022

During a joint press conference with Lithuania’s Foreign Minister, Senator Payne said that no talks had been held with Taiwan about the possibility of changing the name of its representative office in Australia: ‘No discussions of that nature. Australia remains committed to our one-China policy.’[73] This statement was made against the backdrop of a decision by Vilnius to allow Taiwan to open a de facto embassy using ‘Taiwan’ in its name instead of ‘Taipei’.[74]

February 10 2022

After having been asked by then-Trade Minister Simon Birmingham in October 2020 to conduct an inquiry into expanding membership of the CPTPP,[75] the Australian Parliament’s Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade tabled its report. The committee recommended the government ‘encourage and facilitate the accession of Taiwan to the CPTPP’, as well as consider in parallel the negotiation of an Australia-Taiwan free trade agreement. [76]

February 22 2022

Asked whether ‘a Labor government [would] commit troops to defend Taiwan’, then-Shadow Foreign Minister Wong replied that the Australian Labor Party (ALP) would adhere to the principle of strategic ambiguity, in line with the US position:[77]

[R]ather than talking up the drums of war, the adult and responsible thing to do is to continue to assert, as the Taiwanese have done to China, that any resolution across the Taiwan Straits must occur peacefully, and to speak very clearly, against any unilateral changes to the status quo. That is the way we can preserve peace.

February 24 2022

In media appearances then-Prime Minister Morrison emphasised the need to separate the issues of the Ukraine crisis and tensions over Taiwan. He stated in a press conference, ‘I think it’s important to separate these issues’, and in an interview on the same day, ‘I'd caution about drawing too many strong parallels between those situations. They are quite different.’ [78]

February 25 2022

Mr Dutton during a television interview with Sky News drew a direct link between Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the PRC’s calculations on Taiwan:[79]

My assessment is that the Chinese government will be watching very closely the world’s reaction to President Putin, whether there is a significant and tangible price that Russia’s going to have to pay for this invasion into Ukraine, and they will be sucking up all of that intelligence, all of that information, and that will allow them to factor that into their own decisions as to what they want to do with Taiwan or elsewhere in the years ahead.

He went on to say that it ‘may be in [President Xi’s] calculation’ that, as the interviewer put it, ‘now is the right time to go for Taiwan.’

February 27 2022

Asked during a television interview with the ABC, ‘[W]hat should Australia do if China did try to seize Taiwan?’, then-Shadow Foreign Minister Penny Wong replied, ‘I won’t get into those hypotheticals’, repeating the ALP’s adherence to strategic ambiguity.[80]

March 3 2022

The AOT, the National Development Council and the Ministry of Education hosted the inaugural Australia-Taiwan English Language Learning Dialogue focused on ‘advanc[ing] education cooperation’.[81]

March 4 2022

Mr Morrison repeated his view that there was a need to separate the issues of the Ukraine crisis and Taiwan in a radio interview, expanding on his reasoning:[82]

I wouldn’t conflate the issues of Taiwan and Ukraine. I think they’re very different issues. I mean, Ukraine is not a member of NATO, and there’s a clear red line when it comes to if Russia was to cross over into a NATO country… There’s also, I think, a very clear understanding of what the implications would be if China were to seek to realise its ambitions for Taiwan.

March 6 2022

During an appearance on the ABC, Mr Dutton indicated that Australia could send weapons to Taiwan in the event of a military conflict with the PRC. The ABC reported, ‘When directly asked about the prospect of arming Taiwan… Mr Dutton said: ‘I think we do whatever we can to deter China from acts of aggression in our region.’’[83]

March 6 2022

Commenting on Mr Dutton’s November 13 2021 remarks that it would be ‘inconceivable’ that Australia would not support the US in a military conflict with the PRC over Taiwan, then-Shadow Defence Minister Brendan O’Connor said: [84]

It would be completely wrong and wrongheaded for us to be answering such hypotheticals, and we think the Defence Minister made a mistake in that regard. I don't recall any defence minister in our history, certainly recent history, that would ever answer a question in the positive about a hypothetical question about whether we would find ourselves engaged in a full-blown war with a nuclear superpower.

March 29 2022

Taiwan became a founding member of the Indigenous Peoples Economic and Trade Cooperation Arrangement (IPETCA), joining Australia, New Zealand and Canada.[85] IPETCA aims to improve economic empowerment among Indigenous Peoples in the Asia-Pacific region by promoting trade and economic linkages, and by bringing international attention to indigenous economic and trade issues. Work on the agreement began in February 2021.[86]

April 5 2022

Mr Dutton during a 9News interview noted, ‘We have an autocrat in Russia and an autocrat in China ... The Chinese government is on a course in relation to Taiwan and amassing nuclear weapons.’ He underlined the possibility of conflict in the not too distant future: ‘There is potential for conflict in our area in a couple of years.’ [87]

May 3 2022

The AOT head met with Hsinchu’s mayor Lîm Tì-kian to discuss deepening collaboration on bilingual education (part of Taiwan’s 2030 bilingual nation policy), including cooperation on teacher training.[88]

May 13 2022

Taiwan’s Foreign Minister, Joseph Wu, in an interview with SBS News said of the PRC-Solomon Islands new security agreement and of the PRC’s growing security footprint, ‘It is right at your doorstep and I’m sure any military presence by China in the Solomon Islands is going to be your great concern.’ He said Taiwan would like to ‘work closer’ with partners like Australia to enhance security in the Pacific.[89]

May 21 2022

Taiwan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement congratulating Australia for holding a successful federal election and acknowledging the assumed victory of the ALP. The statement noted substantial improvements in the bilateral relationship in recent years in the areas of trade, investment, clean energy, technology, culture and agriculture.[90]

May 21 2022

The AOT, the American Institute in Taiwan the British Office Taipei, the Canadian Trade Office in Taipei and the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association issued a joint statement ‘reaffirm[ing] our support for Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the work of the World Health Organization and Taiwan’s participation as an observer in the World Health Assembly.’[91]

May 24 2022

Prime Minister Albanese was asked about his government’s position in relation to the possibility of American military action over Taiwan during a press conference following the Quad meeting in Tokyo on May 24. He replied, ‘I confirm there’s no change in Australia’s position… [T]here should be no unilateral change to the status quo. Our position has not changed.’[92]

This followed comments from the day before by President Joe Biden who stated the US would be willing to get involved militarily to defend Taiwan, saying, ‘That’s the commitment we made.’ The White House had subsequently walked back the remarks.[93]

May 26 2022

Prime Minister Albanese after being asked in a television interview, ‘Will you back America in a war against China if they invade in Taiwan?’, responded that Australia’s strategy would be ‘to use diplomatic language and not to go down that route.’[94]

May 30 2022

As newly elected leader of the Liberal opposition, Mr Dutton in a Sky News interview said:[95]

[Beijing] have been very clear about their intent in relation to Taiwan. I’m concerned that if they went into Taiwan, that would change quite dramatically the security settings within our own region.

June 13 2022

Asked during a Bloomberg interview about PRC Defence Minister Wei Fenghe’s June 11 speech at a security summit in which he stated, ‘We will fight at all cost and we will fight to the very end’ to stop Taiwan from declaring independence[96], and whether ‘In that scenario, would you see Australia go to war to defend Taiwan?’, Deputy Prime Minister Richard Marles replied:[97]

Well, look, I'm not going to get into hypotheticals… [O]ur policy in respect of Taiwan and China hasn't changed. We have a one-China policy. We do not support Taiwanese independence. We don't support any unilateral action on either side of the Taiwan Strait, which would change the status quo. The resolution of the people of Taiwan is a matter which should happen by consensus, by agreement…

Mr Marles had used a similar formulation in June 12 comments to Al Jazeera.[98]

June 16 2022

During a joint press conference, Foreign Minister Wong and her New Zealand counterpart were asked, ‘What do you both make of China’s move to extend its military operations in the Taiwan Strait?’ Senator Wong responded: [99]

Our long-standing position is very clear. We support the status quo and we would urge there be no unilateral changes which would disrupt the status quo in relation to the status of Taiwan.

June 21 2022

Western Sydney University and Minghsin University of Science and Technology signed a memorandum of understanding to help promote English language education and allow students to undertake joint degree programs.[100]

June 22-23 2022

Representatives from Taiwan, Australia, Canada and New Zealand attended the launch of the Indigenous Peoples Economic and Trade Cooperation Arrangement (IPETCA) in Ottawa. [101]

This fact sheet was prepared by Elena Collinson, Senior Project and Research Officer, and Corey Lee Bell, Project and Research Officer at the Australia-China Relations Institute, University of Technology Sydney.

 

Sources

[1] Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, ‘Australia-Taiwan relationship’, accessed July 1 2022 <https://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/taiwan/australia-taiwan-relationship>.

[2] Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, ‘Trade and investment at a glance 2020,’ accessed July 1 2022 <https://www.dfat.gov.au/publications/trade-and-investment/trade-and-investment-glance-2020>.

[3] Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, ‘Australia-Taiwan relationship, Overview,’ accessed July 1 2022 <https://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/taiwan/australia-taiwan-relationship>.

[4] Jenny Bloomfield, Australia-Taiwan Hydrogen Trade and Investment Dialogue - Remarks by Representative Jenny Bloomfield, Australian Office, Taipei, July 29 2021 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/aus_tw_hydrogen_trade_investment_dialogue_rep_bloomfield_remarks.html>.

[5] Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘Cultural diversity: Census 2021’, June 28 2022, <https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/people-and-communities/cultural-diversity-census/2021>.

[6] Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, ‘Australia-Taiwan relationship’, accessed July 1 2022 <https://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/taiwan/australia-taiwan-relationship>.

[7] 澳洲: 台灣青年打工度假計畫首選之地 (Australia: Working holiday visa program the first choice for Taiwanese youths), Australian Office, Taipei, accessed January 7 2022 <https://australia.org.tw/tpeichinese/WHM_CHINESE.html>.

[8] Australian Parliamentary Library, ‘Australia’s working holiday maker program: a quick guide,’ Parliament of Australia, November 22 2016 <https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1617/Quick_Guides/WorkingHoliday>.

[9] Chen Yu-cheng, 疫情延燒、失業率飆升 在澳洲「無工可打」的年輕人,該回台灣嗎? (With the pandemic spreading like wildfire and the unemployment rate exploding, should Taiwanese youths on working holiday visas in Australia come back to Taiwan?), Commonwealth Magazine, April 24 2020 <https://www.cw.com.tw/article/5100000>.

[10] Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, ‘Taiwan elections’, media release, January 12 2020 <https://www.dfat.gov.au/news/media/Pages/taiwan-elections-200112>.

[11] Penny Wong (@SenatorWong), ‘Good to see democracy exercised in Taiwan in a peaceful and inclusive manner. Congratulations to @iingwen on her re-election.’, Twitter, January 13 2020, 5.03pm <https://twitter.com/senatorwong/status/1216601536911958016>.

[12] Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Taiwan: Australia-Taiwan organic equivalency arrangement (2020-01), February 21 2020 <https://www.awe.gov.au/biosecurity-trade/export/controlled-goods/organic-bio-dynamic/organic-notices/2020/2020-01>. 

[13] Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan), ‘President Tsai meets Australian Representative to Taiwan Gary Cowan’, news release, March 3 2020 <https://english.president.gov.tw/News/5981>.

[14] Eryk Bagshaw, ‘Taiwan pushes Australia to back World Health Organisation tilt’, Sydney Morning Herald, April 28 2020 <https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/taiwan-pushes-australia-to-back-world-health-organisation-tilt-20200428-p54nxe.html>.

[15] Eryk Bagshaw and Anthony Galloway, ‘Australia to back Taiwan’s return to the WHO’, Sydney Morning Herald, April 30 2020 <https://www.smh.com.au/world/asia/australia-to-back-taiwan-s-return-to-the-who-20200429-p54oaa.html>; See also Stephen Dziedzic, ‘Taiwan rejoining World Health Organization still backed by Australia in diplomatically risky move’, ABC News, May 1 2020 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-05-01/australia-still-backs-taiwan-return-who-risky-move/12204850>. 

[16] Australian Office, Taipei, ‘Australia supports Taiwan’s involvement in the World Health Organization’s work and Taiwan’s participation as an observer at the World Health Assembly’, May 14 2020 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/home.html>.

[17] Marise Payne, Linda Reynolds, Mike Pompeo and Mark Esper, joint statement, Australia-US Ministerial Consultations (AUSMIN) 2020, July 28 2020 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/media-release/joint-statement-australia-us-ministerial-consultations-ausmin-2020>.

[18] Marise Payne and Linda Reynolds, joint transcript, Australia-United States Ministerial Consultations (AUSMIN), July 29 2020 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/transcript/australia-united-states-ministerial-consultations-ausmin>.

[19] Malcolm Turnbull, keynote speech, Yushan Forum, Taiwan-Asia Exchange Foundation, October 8 2020 <https://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/keynote-speech-at-the-yushan-forum>.

[20] Lin Chia-nan and Kayleigh Madjar, ‘Taiwan stands with Australia: Tsai’, Taipei Times, December 3 2020 <https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2020/12/03/2003748006>.

[21] Helen Davidson, ‘'Stronger together': Taiwan foreign minister urgers new alliance against China’, The Guardian, December 7 2020 <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/07/stronger-together-taiwan-foreign-minister-urges-new-alliance-against-china>.

[22] Jenny Bloomfield, New Year’s address to Australian Office staff, Australian Office, Taipei, February 5 2021 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/representative_new_year_address_to_ao_staff.html>. 

[23] 游院長接見澳洲駐台辦事處新任代表露珍怡(Jenny Bloomfield)女士一行3人 (Legislative Yuan president You Si-kun receives Australian Office, Taipei’s new representative Jenny Bloomfield), Legislative Yuan, March 9 2021 <https://www.ly.gov.tw/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=5255&pid=207779>.

[24] You Si-kun, Facebook post, March 9 2021 <https://www.facebook.com/269120282538/posts/10157873227147539/>.

[25] Andrew Greene, ‘Australia discussing ‘contingency’ plans with United States over possible Taiwan conflict’, ABC News April 1 2021 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-01/australia-discuss-contingency-plans-us-possible-conflict-taiwan/100043826>.

[26] The Control Yuan, ‘CY President meets new Taipei Australian Office representative Jenny Bloomfield’, April 22 2021 <https://www.cy.gov.tw/en/News_Content.aspx?n=252&s=20239>; Australian Office, Taipei, Facebook post, April 13 2021 <https://www.facebook.com/australianofficetaipei/posts/2527459597400376/>.

[27] Daniel Hurst, ‘Australian defence chief says war between China and Taiwan would be ‘disastrous’’, The Guardian, April 16 2021 <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/apr/16/australian-defence-chief-says-war-between-china-and-taiwan-would-be-disastrous>.

[28] Jacob Greber, Michael Smith and Andrew Tillett, ‘Canberra prepares for Taiwan conflict as tensions escalate’, The Australian Financial Review, April 16 2021 <https://www.afr.com/world/asia/canberra-prepares-for-taiwan-conflict-as-tensions-escalate-20210416-p57jqv>.

[29] Matthew Doran, ‘Defence Minister Peter Dutton says there are ‘no plans for Australian troops to return’ to Afghanistan’, ABC News, April 25 2021 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-25/australian-troops-will-not-return-to-afghanistan-peter-dutton/100093802>.

[30] Andrew Greene, ‘Home Affairs Secretary Mike Pezzullo warns ‘drums of war’ are beating in a message to staff’, ABC News, April 26 2021 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-26/mike-pezzullo-home-affairs-war-defence-force/100096418>; Michael Pezzullo, ‘The drums of war are growing louder’, The Australian, April 27 2021 <https://www.theaustralian.com.au/commentary/the-drums-of-war-are-growing-louder/news-story/bf29fb3cf94b89f84eaeb22fd32d9724>.

[31] Michael Smith, ‘Taiwan shores up allies as China threat looms’, The Australian Financial Review, May 6 2021 <https://www.afr.com/world/asia/taiwan-shores-up-allies-as-china-threat-looms-20210504-p57ot5>.

[32] Neil Mitchell and Scott Morrison, interview, The Times, May 6 2021 <https://thetimes.com.au/australia/7387-neil-mitchell-interview-with-scott-morrison>.

[33] Anna Henderson, ‘Labor questions whether Scott Morrison is ‘lying’ over Taiwan ‘one country, two systems’ comments, SBS News, May 13 2021 <https://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/labor-questions-whether-scott-morrison-is-lying-over-taiwan-one-country-two-systems-comments/rux1y49mg>.

[34] Penny Wong, Speech to launch Peter Hartcher’s ‘Red Zone’, Canberra, May 19 2021 <https://www.pennywong.com.au/media-hub/speeches/speech-to-launch-peter-hartcher-s-red-zone-king-s-hall-old-parliament-house-canberra-19-05-2021/>.

[35] Australian Office, Taipei, the American Institute in Taiwan and the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association, ‘Support for Taiwan’s meaningful engagement with the World Health Organization and participation as an observer in the World Health Assembly’, joint press release, May 25 2021 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/home.html>.

[36] Commonwealth of Australia, Official Committee Hansard, Senate Foreign Affairs Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, Estimates – Foreign Affairs portfolio, June 1 2021, p. 147 <https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/committees/estimate/6cf89f2f-be7a-43ff-8daf-7ee780cc8b96/toc_pdf/Foreign%20Affairs,%20Defence%20and%20Trade%20Legislation%20Committee_2021_06_01_8812_Official.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22committees/estimate/6cf89f2f-be7a-43ff-8daf-7ee780cc8b96/0000%22>.

[37] Commonwealth of Australia, Official Committee Hansard, Senate Foreign Affairs Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, Estimates – Foreign Affairs portfolio, June 3 2021, pp. 159-160 <https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id%3A%22committees%2Festimate%2F61e2b1e6-cc5e-419a-86c0-ae25e3dd452c%2F0000%22>.

[38] Commonwealth of Australia, Official Committee Hansard, Senate Foreign Affairs Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, Estimates – Foreign Affairs portfolio, June 4 2021, p. 18 <https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id%3A%22committees%2Festimate%2Fc3f0730f-36e7-44a7-8347-e197d00b1f61%2F0001%22>.

[39] Marise Payne, Peter Dutton, Motegi Toshimitsu, Kishi Nobuo, Peter Dutton, Ninth Japan-Australia 2+2 Foreign and Defence Ministerial Consultations, joint statement, June 9 2021 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/media-release/ninth-japan-australia-22-foreign-and-defence-ministerial-consultations>.

[40] Marise Payne, interview, 2GB Breakfast, June 16 2021 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/transcript/interview-ben-fordham-2gb-breakfast-2>.

[41] Australian Office, Taipei and Ministry of Economic Affairs, Joint media release on hydrogen trade and investment, July 29 2021 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/aus_tw_hydrogen_trade_investment_dialogue_joint_media_release.html>.

[42] Jenny Bloomfield, Weiya remarks, Australian Office, Taipei, January 21 2022 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/weiya_remarks_2022.html>.

[43] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan), ‘VP Lai receives Australia representative, pledges to strengthen bilateral ties’, news release, New Southbound Policy Portal, August 6 2021 <https://nspp.mofa.gov.tw/nsppe/news.php?post=205686&unit=376&unitname=&postname=VP-Lai-receives-Australia-representative,-pledges-to-strengthen-bilateral-ties>.

[44] Japan Taiwan Exchange Association, ‘Green Energy: A way to a clean and sustainable earth’, August 11 2021 <https://www.koryu.or.jp/en/business/gctf/20210811/>.

[45] Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan), ‘President Tsai meets Australian Representative to Taiwan Jenny Bloomfield’, news release, August 12 2021 <https://english.president.gov.tw/NEWS/6149>.

[46] Marise Payne, Peter Dutton, Jean-Yves Le Drian and Florence Parly, joint statement, Inaugural Australia-France 2+2 Ministerial Consultations, August 30 2021 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/media-release/inaugural-australia-france-22-ministerial-consultations>.

[47] Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan), The 26th Taiwan-Australia Joint Energy and Minerals, Trade and Investment Cooperation Consultations (JEMTIC) Sharing Strategic Deployments of Net Zero Emissions and Facilitating Bilateral Cooperation’, November 3 2021 <https://www.moea.gov.tw/MNS/english/news/News.aspx?kind=6&menu_id=176&news_id=97597>.

[48] Marise Payne, Peter Dutton, Antony Blinken and Lloyd Austin, joint statement, Australia-US Ministerial Consultations, September 17 2021 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/media-release/australia-us-ministerial-consultations-joint-statement-unbreakable-alliance-peace-and-prosperity>.

[49] Samantha Maiden, ‘Peter Dutton’s blunt warning over prospect of war with China’, news.com.au, September 17 2021 <https://www.news.com.au/technology/innovation/military/peter-duttons-blunt-warning-over-prospect-of-war-with-china/news-story/15d47f2f5b3d48ca2f43a4648a8b5531>.

[50] Reuters Staff, ‘Taiwan applies to join Pacific trade pact week after China’, Reuters, September 23 2021 <https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/taiwan-applies-join-pacific-trade-pact-cptpp-official-news-agency-2021-09-22/>.

[51] Will Glasgow, ‘Beijing barks as Australia, Japan, Canada support Taiwan CPTPP bid’, The Australian, September 24 2021 <https://www.theaustralian.com.au/world/taiwan-launches-tpp-trade-pitch-after-china/news-story/be691d5452ace95f392b1ed3b8ab7608>.

[52] Andrew Greene and Stan Grant, ‘Taiwanese Foreign Minister warns his country is preparing for war with China, asks Australia for help,’ ABC News, October 4 2021 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-10-04/taiwan-preparing-for-war-with-china/100511294>.

[53] Daniel Hurst and Helen Davidson, ‘Australia warns China against ‘threat or use of force’ following Taiwan air incursions,’ The Guardian, October 5 2022 <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/oct/05/australia-warns-china-against-threat-or-use-of-force-following-taiwan-air-incursions>.

[54] Marise Payne, interview, ABC Radio National, October 7 2021 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/transcript/interview-david-speers-abc-radio-national>.

[55] Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan), ‘President Tsai meets former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott’, October 7 2021 <https://english.president.gov.tw/News/6171>.

[56] Reuters Staff, ‘Former Australia PM Abbott says in Taiwan to help end its isolation’, Reuters, October 7 2021 <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-australia-idAFKBN2GX089>.

[57] Anthony Albanese, ‘Labor believes in a future made in Australia’, press conference, October 7 2021 <https://anthonyalbanese.com.au/media-centre/minto-doorstop-interview-7-oct-2021>.

[58] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan), Remarks of the Honourable Tony Abbott, Yushan Forum, Taiwan-Asia Exchange Foundation, October 8 2021 <https://en.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content.aspx?n=1328&s=96588>.

[59] Department of the House of Representatives, ‘Taiwan to prosecute case to join the CPTPP’, media release, Parliament of Australia, October 12 2021 <https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/House_of_Representatives/About_the_House_News/Media_Releases/Taiwan_to_prosecute_case_to_join_the_CPTPP>.

[60] Daniel Hurst, ‘Australia wants deeper energy ties to help Taiwan decarbonise, amid China tensions’, The Guardian, October 24 2021 <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/oct/24/australia-wants-deeper-energy-ties-to-help-taiwan-decarbonise-amid-china-tensions>.

[61] Australian Office, Taipei, ‘Australia-Taiwan Friendship Year: 40 years of the Australian Office’, press release, October 26 2021 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/friendshipyear.html>.

[62]‘Video: Former Australian PM Paul Keating says ‘Taiwan is not a vital Australian interest’’, ABC News, November 10 2021<https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-11-10/fmr-australian-pm-paul-keating-on-taiwan-not-vital-interest/13625554>.

[63] Troy Bramston, ‘Defending Taiwan against Beijing is a must, says Peter Dutton’, The Australian, November 12 2021 <https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/defence/defending-taiwan-against-beijing-is-a-must-says-peter-dutton/news-story/ef9dd7fd56515afbdc90021760d1d344>.

[64] Jenny Bloomfield, ‘Statement on Australia-Kaohsiung Cooperation’, Australian Office, Taipei, November 15 2021 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/australia-kaohsiung_cooperation.html>.

[65]Anthony Galloway, ‘Marise Payne says ‘every action’ needs to be taken to prevent war over Taiwan,’ Sydney Morning Herald, November 18 2021 <https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/marise-payne-says-every-action-needs-to-be-taken-to-prevent-war-over-taiwan-20211117-p599mp.html>.

[66] Daniel Hurst, ‘‘Mistakes of the 1930s’: Peter Dutton ramps up China rhetoric as Keating calls him a ‘dangerous personality’’, The Guardian, November 26 2021 <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/nov/26/mistakes-of-the-1930s-peter-dutton-ramps-up-china-rhetoric-as-keating-calls-him-a-dangerous-personality>.

[67] Cited in Elena Collinson, Australia-China monthly wrap-up: November 2021, Australia-China Relations Institute, University of Technology Sydney, December 13 2021 <https://www.australiachinarelations.org/content/australia-china-monthly-wrap-november-2021>.

[68] Daniel Hurst, ‘‘Mistakes of the 1930s’: Peter Dutton ramps up China rhetoric as Keating calls him a ‘dangerous personality’’, The Guardian, November 26 2021 <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/nov/26/mistakes-of-the-1930s-peter-dutton-ramps-up-china-rhetoric-as-keating-calls-him-a-dangerous-personality>.

[69] 朱立伦会见澳洲驻台代表 期待深化交流 (Eric Chu meets a representative from the Australian Office, Taipei, anticipates deeper engagement), China Review News Service, November 30 2021 <http://bj.crntt.com/doc/1062/3/6/8/106236867.html?coluid=93&kindid=19311&docid=106236867>.

[70] Daniel Hurst and Helen Davidson, ‘Taiwan thanks Australian PM and defence minister for grim warning over China’, The Guardian, November 30 2021 <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/nov/30/taiwan-thanks-australian-pm-and-defence-minister-for-grim-warning-over-china>.

[71] Marise Payne, Peter Dutton, Elizabeth Truss and Ben Wallace, AUKMIN 2022 joint statement, January 21 2022 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/media-release/aukmin-2022-joint-statement>.

[72] Marise Payne, interview, 2GB Drive, January 25 2022 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/transcript/interview-jim-wilson-2gb-drive-12>.

[73] Reuters Staff, ‘Australia says it is not looking to rename Taiwan’s de fact embassy’, Reuters, February 9 2022 <https://www.reuters.com/world/china/australia-says-it-is-not-looking-rename-taiwans-de-facto-embassy-2022-02-09/>.

[74] Agence France-Presse and Reuters, ‘Taiwan opens representative office in Lithuania’, Deutsche Welle November 18 2021 <https://www.dw.com/en/taiwan-opens-representative-office-in-lithuania/a-59853874>.

[75] Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, Inquiry into expanding membership of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, Parliament of Australia <https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Foreign_Affairs_Defence_and_Trade/CPTPPMembership>.

[76] Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, Expanding the membership of the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership, Parliament of Australia, February 10 2022 <https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Foreign_Affairs_Defence_and_Trade/CPTPPMembership/Report>.

[77] Penny Wong, interview, ABC Radio National, February 22 2022 <https://www.pennywong.com.au/media-hub/transcripts/abc-rn-breakfast-with-patricia-karvelas-22-02-22/>. 

[78] Cited in Elena Collinson, Australia-China monthly wrap-up: February and March 2022, Australia-China Relations Institute, University of Technology Sydney, April 8 2022 <https://www.australiachinarelations.org/content/australia-china-monthly-wrap-february-and-march-2022>.

[79] Peter Dutton, interview, Sky News, February 25 2022 <https://www.minister.defence.gov.au/minister/peter-dutton/transcripts/interview-peter-stefanovic-first-edition-sky-news>.

[80] Penny Wong, interview, ABC Insiders, February 27 2022 <https://pennywong.com.au/media-hub/transcripts/abc-insiders-with-david-speers-27-02-2022/>.

[81] Australian Office, Taipei, National Development Council and the Ministry of Education, Joint statement on the Australia-Taiwan English Language Learning Dialogue, March 3 2022 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/ELLD_Joint_Statement.html>.

[82] Cited in Elena Collinson, Australia-China monthly wrap-up: February and March 2022, Australia-China Relations Institute, University of Technology Sydney, April 8 2022 <https://www.australiachinarelations.org/content/australia-china-monthly-wrap-february-and-march-2022>.

[83] Henry Belot and Jane Norman, ‘Peter Dutton flags Australia sending weapons to Taiwan, acquiring nuclear submarines before 2040’, ABC News, March 6 2022 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2022-03-06/peter-dutton-flags-australian-military-support-for-taiwan/100886412>.

[84] Ibid.

[85] Focus Taiwan, 'Taiwan joins international Indigenous peoples trade pact', Focus Taiwan, March 29 2022 <https://focustaiwan.tw/business/202203290021>.

[86]台灣推動原住民諮商同意機制 向國際分享經驗 (Taiwan promotes consultation and consent mechanism for Indigenous peoples, shares its experiences with other nations), Central News Agency, April 28 2022 <https://www.cna.com.tw/news/aipl/202204280136.aspx>.

[87]Richard Wood, ‘Dutton announces advanced weapons upgrade, warns of conflict ‘within a couple of years’’, 9News, April 5 2022 <https://www.9news.com.au/national/peter-dutton-announces-defence-upgrade/cbd63ffe-96da-477e-a6b0-af289d93e5f2>.

[88]  Ts’ai Chang-sheng, 澳洲駐台代表拜會聊雙語教育 林智堅盼推台澳師資培訓合作 (A representative of the Australia Office Taipei visits [Hsinchu’s mayor] to discuss bilingual education, Lin Chih-chien hopes to advance cooperation between Taiwan and Australia in teacher training), Liberty Times, May 3 2022, <https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/breakingnews/3913951>.

[89] Tom Stayner and Kevin Cheng, ‘Pay more attention’: Taiwan’s foreign minister warns Australia of China’s rise in the Pacific’, SBS News, May 13 2022 <https://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/pay-more-attention-taiwans-foreign-minister-warns-australia-of-chinas-rise-in-the-pacific/hdi7pll8a>.

[90] Department of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan), 我國祝賀澳大利亞順利完成國會大選 (We congratulate Australia for the smooth completion of its federal election), May 21 2022 <https://www.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content.aspx?n=95&s=97878>.

[91] American Institute in Taiwan, the Australian Office Taipei, the British Office Taipei, the Canadian Trade Office in Taipei and the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association, ‘Support for Taiwan’s meaningful engagement with the World Health Organization and participation as an observer in the World Health Assembly’, joint press release, May 21 2022 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/joint_press_release_tw.html>.

[92] Anthony Albanese and Penny Wong, press conference, Tokyo, Japan, May 24 2022 <https://www.pm.gov.au/media/press-conference-0>.

[93] Ralph Jennings, ‘US State Department walks back Biden’s unusually strong comments on Taiwan’, Voice of America, May 24 2022 <https://www.voanews.com/a/us-state-department-walks-back-biden-s-unusually-strong-comments-on-taiwan-/6588234.html>.

[94] Anthony Albanese, interview, Sunrise, May 26 2022 <https://www.pm.gov.au/media/television-interview-sunrise>.

[95] Tyrone Clark, ‘Peter Dutton urges Labor Party to stand strong against Beijing as he labels China the ‘biggest issue’ facing Australia;, Sky News, May 30 2022 <https://www.skynews.com.au/australia-news/politics/peter-dutton-urges-labor-party-to-stand-strong-against-beijing-as-he-labels-china-the-biggest-issue-facing-australia/news-story/df0bbd7ac5d23ebc3622e871f7467fa2>.

[96] SBS and Agence France-Presse, ‘Chinese Defence Minister vows ‘fight to the end’ to stop Taiwan’s independence’, SBS News, June 12 2022 <https://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/chinese-defence-minister-vows-fight-to-the-end-to-stop-taiwans-independence/drgy56270>.

[97] Richard Marles, interview, Bloomberg, June 13 2022 <https://www.minister.defence.gov.au/minister/rmarles/transcripts/interview-bloomberg-au>.

[98] Jessica Washington, ‘China’s military buildup needs to be transparent: Australia’, Al Jazeera, June 12 2022 <https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/6/12/qa-australias-deputy-pm-on-beijings-military-build-up>.

[99] Penny Wong and Nanaia Mahuta, joint press conference, June 16 2022 <https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/penny-wong/transcript/joint-press-conference-new-zealand-foreign-minister-nanaia-mahuta>.

[100] Australian Office, Taipei, Remarks by Australian Representative Jenny Bloomfield at Western Sydney University and Minghsin University of Science and Technology MOU signing ceremony, June 21 2022 <https://australia.org.tw/tpei/remarks_wsd_minghsinU_MOU.html>.

[101] Taiwan Today, ‘IPETCA launched in Ottawa by Taiwan, Australia, Canada, New Zealand’, New Southbound Policy Portal, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan), July 1 2022 <https://nspp.mofa.gov.tw/nsppe/content_tt.php?unit=6&post=221420&unitname=Taiwan-Today&postname=Taiwan-launches-APEC%E2%80%99s-Indigenous-Peoples-Economic-and-Trade-Cooperation-Arrangement>.  

Authors

Elena Collinson

Senior Project and Research Officer

Elena Collinson image

Corey Lee Bell

Project and Research Officer

Corey Lee Bell image