Australia-PRC trade and investment developments: a timeline
January 28 2021
Note: This factsheet is a live document which will be updated as and when notable developments in trade and investment occur. It was last updated on April 14 2021.
2020 marked a series of notable trade developments between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Australia that affected numerous sectors, resulting in a near-daily flurry of media reports highlighting new developments in the deterioration of the bilateral trade relationship and amplification of discussion around PRC economic coercion. Investment from the PRC was also subject to greater scrutiny by Australia, resulting in some high-profile rejections.
As we enter 2021, there are appears to be little prospect that Australia’s relations with its largest trading partner will improve in the near future. This factsheet has recorded developments in trade and investment in 2020 and will continue to chronicle notable developments as 2021 unfolds.
Tariff rates into the PRC on milk powder, goat meat, oranges, shelled almonds, and skincare are reduced under the sixth round of tariff cuts under the China-Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA).
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an inquiry into the continuation of anti-dumping and countervailing measures on PRC aluminium extrusions. Measures along these lines have been in place since October 2010. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter in September 2020, with a decision from the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology expected within 30 days of receiving the recommendation. 
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an anti-dumping investigation into aluminium micro-extrusions from the PRC. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter in March 2021.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates anti-dumping and anti-subsidisation investigations into precision pipes and tube steel from the PRC, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than April 2021.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates a review of anti-dumping measures applying to A4 copy paper from the PRC, Brazil, Indonesia and Thailand. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than March 17 2021. Measures along these lines have been in place since April 2017.
Ambassador to the PRC in Australia Cheng Jingye tells The Australian Financial Review that ordinary Chinese citizens may have second thoughts about coming to Australia to study, travel or purchase Australian wine and beef:
[T]he Chinese public is frustrated, dismayed and disappointed with what you are doing now. In the long term, for example, I think if the mood is going from bad to worse, people would think why we should go to such a country while it's not so friendly to China. The tourists may have second thoughts. Maybe the parents of the students would also think whether this place, which they find is not so friendly, even hostile, is the best place to send their kids to. So it's up to the public, the people to decide. And also, maybe the ordinary people will think why they should drink Australian wine or eat Australian beef.
Asked about PRC Ambassador Cheng’s April 27 comments, Australian Trade Minister Simon Birmingham says Australia wouldn’t change its policy because of ‘economic coercion or threats of economic coercion’. 
The Australian government expresses concern about ‘reports that unjustified duties may be levied on Australian barley imports into [the PRC]’. PRC authorities had commenced an anti-dumping and countervail investigation into Australian barley exports in 2018.
Four Australian beef abattoirs have reportedly been suspended by the PRC, which according to Australian Trade Minister Birmingham, ‘appear to be based on highly technical issues’.
A PRC Foreign Ministry spokesperson confirms the May 11 reports, stating that four Australian beef exporters have been ‘suspended effective immediately’ by the PRC’s General Administration of Customs (GACC) for ‘repeated violations of inspection and quarantine requirements’.
Australian Minister for Industry, Science and Technology Karen Andrews accepts the recommendation from Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission, made on April 17 2020, to continue to impose anti-dumping measures applying to silicon metals from the PRC. The inquiry had commenced in September 2019. Measures along these lines have been in place since June 2015.
The PRC’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) makes the determination that dumping and subsidisation had occurred with Australian barley exports to the PRC. The PRC’s MOFCOM imposes an 80.5 percent tariff on Australian barley exports, comprising a 73.6 percent anti-dumping duty and a 6.9 percent countervailing duty, effective May 19 2020.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an anti-dumping investigation into painted steel strapping from the PRC and Vietnam and an anti-subsidy investigation into painted steel strapping from the PRC. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than March 23 2021.
The PRC’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism issues a notice advising against travel to Australia, citing ‘an alarming increase recently in acts of racial discrimination and violence against Chinese and Asians in Australia, due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic’. Australian borders continue to be closed to non-citizens and permanent residents due to COVID-19.
The PRC’s Ministry of Education (MOE) issues an alert to students planning to travel to Australia:
After a spate of racially motivated incidents targeting Asians in Australia, the MOE has urged Chinese students planning to study overseas to evaluate the risks involved and exercise caution if choosing to go to or return to Australian schools.
Australian borders continue to be closed to non-citizens and permanent residents due to COVID-19.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations into aluminium zinc coated steel of a width less than 600 millimetres from the PRC and Vietnam. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than April 21 2021.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an inquiry into the continuation of anti-dumping measures applying to steel reinforcing bars from the PRC. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than March 2 2021. Measures along these lines have been in place since April 2016.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an anti-dumping investigation into certain copper tubes from the PRC and South Korea, and an anti-subsidy investigation into certain copper tubes from the PRC. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than May 14 2021.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an inquiry into the continuation of anti-dumping measures applying to hot-rolled rods in coils of steel from the PRC. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than March 12 2021. Measures along these lines have been in place since April 2016.
The PRC’s MOFCOM confirms it has begun an anti-dumping investigation into Australian wine imports allegedly following a complaint from the China Alcoholic Drinks Association stating that since 2015, the quantity of Australian wine imports has increased substantially, yet their price per kilolitre has decreased 13.36 percent, causing damage to the domestic industry.
Dairy product manufacturer China Mengniu Dairy Co. announce the withdrawal of their proposed bid to acquire Australia-based, Japanese-owned Lion Dairy & Drinks, the second largest milk processor in Australia, after Australian Treasurer Josh Frydenberg ‘made it initially clear to them that [he] didn’t consider it to be in the national interest and...had some concerns about it’. The bid had gained initial approval from the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and the Foreign Investment Review Board earlier in the year.
The PRC’s GACC officially notifies Australia of its decision to suspend the export of beef from a fifth Australian abattoir, Queensland meat processor John Dee Warwick, to the PRC alleging a detection of the banned chemical chloramphenicol in its products.
The PRC’s MOFCOM confirms it has initiated an anti-subsidy investigation of Australian wine imports.
The PRC’s GACC revokes the registration qualification of Australian grain cooperative CBH Grain, Australia’s largest grain exporter, for barley exports due to alleged multiple detections of quarantine pests.
State-owned utilities and steel mills in the PRC reportedly receive verbal notice from PRC authorities to stop importing Australian thermal and coking coal.
Australian Minister for Industry, Science and Technology Karen Andrews accepts the Anti-Dumping Commission’s recommendation, made on September 14 2020, to continue anti-dumping measures applying to aluminium extrusions from the PRC.
Power stations and steel mills in the PRC are reportedly verbally told by authorities to stop using Australian coal, and ports verbally instructed to stop offloading Australian coal.
Following October 12 reports regarding Australian coal, BHP’s chairperson states that the company had ‘recently received deferment requests from some of our Chinese customers’.
Industry body executives report that the PRC’s National Development Reform Commission (NDRC) have been verbally discouraging spinning mills from using Australian cotton.
Australia criticises the PRC’s anti-dumping duties on its barley exports, effected on May 19 2020, in a statement at a meeting of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices, according to South China Morning Post sources.
The PRC’s GACC suspends timber imports from Queensland after allegedly ‘detect[ing] many cases of live pests in timber imported from Australia’.
Barley exports from Emerald Grain are suspended by the GACC after the alleged ‘detection of quarantine contaminants in several consignments’. Emerald Grain is the second Australian grain company to have its barley exports suspended by the PRC.
The Australian media reports that the PRC’s GACC are delaying imports of Australian live lobster.
Australian Trade Minister Birmingham in a press conference confirms that '[the PRC’s GACC] have actually now imposed an inspection of all quantities, from 50 to 100 percent I should say, of rock lobster that’s going into China...[T]hey're saying that that is because they want to understand whether there's trace elements of minerals and metals in it’.
The South China Morning Post reports that bans on Australian copper ore and concentrates, as well as sugar, are expected to be introduced, according to trade sources in the PRC.
The South China Morning Post reports that the PRC is also expected to ban Australian wheat, according to industry sources.
The PRC’s GACC suspends imports of timber from the state of Victoria, alleging the discovery of pests.
The PRC’s MOFCOM published a preliminary ruling that certain wines imported from Australia were dumped, causing damage to the PRC’s wine industry. It imposes a cash deposit at rates between 107.1 percent and 212.1 percent.
The Australian government is reported to be considering taking the PRC to the WTO over its decision to place tariffs on Australian barley.
The PRC’s GACC suspends applications and registration for beef exports from a sixth Australian abattoir, Queensland beef processing plant Meramist.
The PRC’s GACC suspends imports of timber from Tasmania and South Australia, alleging the identification of non-indigenous insects.
The PRC’s MOFCOM announces a preliminary ruling that subsidies existed on imported wines from Australia and decides to impose a countervailing duty deposit of 6.3 percent to 6.4 percent.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an inquiry into the continuation of anti-dumping measures applying to ferrous grinding balls from the PRC. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than May 18 2021. Measures along these lines have been in place since September 2016.
The Australian government takes action in the WTO over the PRC’s imposition of anti-dumping and countervailing duties on Australian barley exports.
Media reports indicate that Beijing’s main planning agency has given PRC power plants approval to import coal without restrictions, with the exception of Australian coal.
The PRC’s GACC halts timber imports from New South Wales and Western Australia, alleging the discovery of live forest pests.
The PRC lifts import quota on Australian wool in compliance with the terms of ChAFTA.
PRC state-owned China State Construction Engineering Corporation withdraws its bid to buy an 88 percent stake in the Australian construction firm Probuild.
Probuild’s parent company, South African infrastructure company Wilson Bayly Holmes-Ovcon (WBHO), states that they had been ‘advised by the potential acquirer of Probuild that it has withdrawn its proposed investment application in Probuild lodged with the Australian Foreign Investment Review Board following advice that its application would be rejected by the Federal Government on the grounds of national security.’ 
According to a report in The Australian Financial Review, the Australian government has ‘secretly rejected several other Chinese takeovers in the past six months, beyond traditional critical infrastructure sectors, including in the construction and technology industries'.
The Australian Financial Review reports that the Australian government had recently told a consortium which included a PRC state-owned entity that had partnered with Australian entities to construct an Energy Australia gas plant in New South Wales ‘it did not intend to approve the deal’.
Following the January 12 and 14 reports in The Australian Financial Review, Australian Treasurer Frydenberg states, ‘Over the last six months around 20 per cent of approved foreign investment applications have at least one Chinese party. So that means more than 250 Chinese-related foreign investment applications have been approved. Less than a handful haven’t proceeded'.
The China Academic Degrees and Graduate Education Development Centre (CDGDC), housed within the PRC’s Ministry of Education, publishes a notice of intent to carry out reviews of Australia-PRC joint degree programs. The signalled reviews are premised on claims by the CDGDC that since 2016 Australian universities had been delivering ‘insufficient investment in high-quality education resources’ and ‘low level repetitive teaching’ in their joint programs with PRC institutions.. No other country engaged in joint programs with the PRC is flagged as the subject of impending review. The Times Higher Education points out that the PRC appears to ‘have singled out Australian universities…while overlooking similar problems involving other countries institutions.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission initiates an inquiry into the continuation of anti-dumping measures applying to clear float glass exported to Australia from the PRC, Indonesia and Thailand. The Commission is expected to make a final recommendation on the matter no later than July 7 2021. Measures along these lines have been in place since October 17 2011.
The PRC’s MOE issues an alert, its first of 2021, to students planning to travel to Australia:
Recently, there have been a series of vicious incidents in Australia in which students have been attacked, which poses a serious threat to the personal safety of students studying in Australia. At present, the global novel coronavirus epidemic situation is still very serious, and international travel still poses a risk. The Ministry of Education reminds students studying abroad to conduct proper safety risks assessments, and be cautious in choosing to go to or return to Australia for their studies.
The PRC’s MOE had issued a similar alert regarding studying in Australia on June 10 2020.
Australian borders continue to be closed to non-citizens and permanent residents due to COVID-19.
The Australian reports that tensions between Canberra and Beijing had forced Woodside Energy, Australia’s largest natural gas producer, to postpone talks to sell LNG to the PRC. Woodside’s chief executive said that potential buyers in the PRC have ‘been very clear that they won’t prioritise those LNG contracts until relations between the Australian and Chinese governments improve. The deals we are talking about – long-term LNG deals – will be held up. That’s certainly what we’re hearing back from the Chinese buyers.’
This follows reports in November 2020 that PRC buyers had pulled out of a process to purchase a stake in Woodside’s $16 billion Scarborough gas field project in Western Australia due to concerns about ‘a number of issues, including FIRB approval’.
Latest data released by the PRC’s Bureau of Import and Export Food Safety for the month of January 2021 lists list products that did not pass inspection and have been refused entry into the PRC. These products include:
- 220 kilograms of Auvo gluten dietary fibre instant wheat noodles from Woolworths Ltd at the port of Ningbo, alleging the beyond range use of strengthening agent.
- 82 kilograms of DHA Algae oil from Homart Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd at the port of Ningbo, alleging bad labelling.
- 3,375 litres of wine from Treasury Wine Estates at the port of Shenzhen, alleging bad labelling.
- 19,854 litres of wine from Bader’s Brook at the port of Chongqing, alleging bad labelling.
Australia’s largest live-fish exporter and largest coral trout buyer, Australian Reef Fish Traders, fails to have its export licence renewed in the PRC. Australia’s live coral trout export trade to the PRC had faced disruption in November 2020 when the PRC’s GACC introduced a new testing regime purporting to test seafood for heavy metals.Despite this, Australian Reef Fish Traders had sent a record monthly consignment of 42 tonnes of live fish to the PRC in December. As such, the company said ‘it could not explain the decision to end a 20-year trading relationship.’
The Australian Financial Review reports that education agents in the PRC are being encouraged by local authorities not to recommend or advertise Australian institutions to prospective students.
Building on the February 25 piece in The Australian Financial Review regarding education agents in the PRC being encouraged by authorities not to send students to Australia, The Sydney Morning Herald reports that ‘[t]he universities first began receiving these reports at the beginning of this week, at which point the advice not to recommend or advertise Australian universities appeared to be circulating only to agents in smaller regional cities. By Thursday, university sources confirmed some reports had expanded to include Beijing and Shanghai’. Group of Eight chief executive Vicki Thomson says of the situation, ‘There is definitely something afoot… But we’ve had no official notification from anybody.
Australian Minister for Industry, Science and Technology Karen Andrews accepts the Anti-Dumping Commission’s recommendations, made on February 8 to continue to impose anti-dumping measures applying to hollow structural sections exported to Australia from the PRC, Korea, Malaysia and Taiwan. The inquiry had commenced on September 25 2019. Measures along these lines have been in place since July 3 2012. Rates on hollow structural sections from the PRC range from 3.6 – 45.6 percent.
Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission terminates an anti-dumping investigation into aluminium micro-extrusions exported to Australia from two PRC companies, Guangdong Jiangsheng Aluminium Co Ltd and Guangdong Zhongya Aluminium Co Ltd. Initiated in February 17 2020, the investigation concludes that there had been no dumping by either company.
Australian Minister for Industry, Science and Technology Karen Andrews accepts the Anti-Dumping Commission’s recommendations, made on February 16 2021, laid-out in the anti-circumvention inquiry related to A4 copy paper exports to Australia from the PRC. The inquiry which began April 28 2020 applies A4 copy paper exports from Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil and the PRC. The additional anti-circumvention inquiry measures relate to the PRC only.
Australian Minister for Industry, Science and Technology, Karen Andrews accepts the Anti-Dumping Commission’s recommendations, made on February 16 2021, to impose anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties on aluminium zinc coated steel with a width equal to or greater than 600mm exported from the PRC. The investigation which commenced August 23 2019 has now concluded, with duty rates ranging from 0.5 – 33 percent.
The ABC reports that 28 Australian businesses exporting hay to the PRC are awaiting renewals of their permits, which expired at the end of February. The general manager of Australia’s largest hay exporter, Gilmac, states that although applications were made to the PRC’s GACC about six months ago, ‘[t]o date, the registrations have not been renewed.’ He noted that three companies are still exporting to the PRC, with their licences not set to expire until 2023.
The Global Times confirms the March 24 ABC report regarding Australian hay exporters continuing to await permit renewals from the PRC, saying, ‘A person close to the matter told the Global Times…that the extension of the permits is under review’.
The PRC’s MOFCOM concludes its anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations into wine imports from Australia, which had commenced on August 18 2020 and August 31 2020, respectively. Having imposed interim tariffs towards the end of 2020, the MOFCOM decision locks in five-year anti-dumping duties ranging from 116.2 to 218.4 percent (an increase from the preliminary imposition of duties between 107.1 to 212.1 percent on November 28 2020) and anti-subsidy duties ranging from 6.3 to 6.4 percent (consistent with the preliminary imposition of duties on December 12 2020). The duties, applied to containers of two litres or less, will come into effect March 28 2021.
According to PRC Customs data released today, in the month of February 2021, 2.6 tonnes of wine from South Australian wine supplier Lindsdale Pty Ltd and 8.6 tonnes of wine from Paspaley Group’s Bunnamagoo Estate in New South Wales were rejected at ports in Shenzhen, by alleged reasons of excessive use of additives and bad labelling, respectively.
Australia’s largest hay exporter Gilmac tells the ABC that it will be buying about 60 percent less hay from Australian farmers this year due. PRC Customs have yet to renew 25 of 28 expired Australian hay export licenses which expired in February (see March 24 2021 entry). According to Gilmac’s chief executive, the industry was buying less hay because of the loss of the PRC market.
Australian hay exports to the PRC are worth $160 million a year and account for approximately 30 percent of total exports.
Latest data released by the PRC’s Bureau of Import and Export Food Safety for the month of March 2021 lists list products that did not pass inspection and have been refused entry into the PRC. These products include:
- 1,010,600 kilograms of oats from CBH Grain at the port of Shantou, alleging the carrying of pests.
- 7,434 litres of Shiraz from Lindsdale Australia at the port of Shenzhen, alleging bad labelling.
Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Marise Payne announces the Australian government’s decision to cancel two agreements between the Victorian state government and the PRC on the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) under Australia’s Foreign Arrangements Scheme, which had commenced on December 10 2020. These were:
- A memorandum of understanding on BRI cooperation, signed on October 8 2018: ‘Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Victoria and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation within the Framework of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Initiative’. and;
- A framework agreement on BRI promotion, signed on October 23 2019: ‘Framework Agreement between the Government of Victoria and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Jointly Promoting the Framework of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road’.
The PRC’s NDRC indefinitely suspends the China-Australia Strategic Economic Dialogue, a high-level forum for bilateral exchange on economic issues, stating:
Recently, some Australian Commonwealth Government officials launched a series of measures to disrupt the normal exchanges and cooperation between China and Australia out of Cold War mindset and ideological discrimination. Based on the current attitude of the Australian Commonwealth Government toward China-Australia cooperation, the National Development and Reform Commission of the People’s Republic of China decides to indefinitely suspend all activities under the framework of the China-Australia Strategic Economic Dialogue.
The inaugural Strategic Economic Dialogue was held in Beijing in June 2014, between the Australian Minister for Trade and Investment and the Treasurer, and the Chairman of the NDRC. Australia and the PRC have held three rounds of talks since the Dialogue’s inception, with the last Dialogue being held in September 2017.
The head of Frutico, Western Australia’s largest table grape grower, tells the ABC that the company’s product, which usually clears PRC customs in a day or two, was being held for weeks at PRC ports for weeks: ‘Our importers are basically saying that there is definitely a concerted effort from [PRC] customs and other people to target these shipments, but no real reasons officially. They are slowing it down, apparently looking for COVID, looking or all sorts of things – just delay tactics to push it out’. Australian table grape exports to the PRC are worth $300 million a year, with the PRC market receiving 44 percent of Australian table grape exports.
At least two second-tier liquefied natural gas (LNG) importers in the PRC reportedly receive verbal notices from authorities to avoid purchasing additional LNG from Australia for delivery over the next year.  Similar directives have not as yet been issued to first-tier state-owned LNG importers which carry out 90 percent of purchases.
Australian LNG exports to the PRC were worth $13 billion last year, representing more than 40 percent of the PRC’s total LNG imports.
This fact sheet was prepared by Elena Collinson, Senior Project and Research Officer, and Thomas Pantle, Project and Research Officer at the Australia-China Relations Institute, University of Technology Sydney.
 Simon Birmingham, ‘More tariff cuts under Australia’s free trade deals’, January 1 2020 <https://www.trademinister.gov.au/minister/simon-birmingham/media-release/more-tariff-cuts-under-australias-free-trade-deals>.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Continuation – Dumping and Subsidisation, Aluminium extrusions from China’, February 13 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-archive-cases/543>.
 Note: In an effort to keep this factsheet concise with respect to Australian Anti-Dumping Commission inquiries reviews and investigations, the timeline will focus on the date the inquiry review or investigation was commenced by the Commission and the date a final decision on the Commission’s recommendation was made by the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Investigation – Dumping, Aluminium micro-extrusions from China’, February 17 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/542>.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Investigation – Dumping and Subsidisation, Precision pipe and tube steel from China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam’, March 31 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/550>.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Review – Dumping and Subsidisation, A4 copy paper from Brazil, China, Indonesia, Thailand’, April 16 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/551>.
 Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Commonwealth of Australia, ‘Transcript of Chinese Ambassador CHENG Jingye's interview with Australian Financial Review political correspondent Andrew Tillett’, April 27 2020 <http://au.china-embassy.org/eng/sghdxwfb_1/t1773741.htm>.
 Simon Birmingham, ‘Interview on ABC Radio Canberra AM with Sabra Lane’, transcript, April 28 2020 <https://www.trademinister.gov.au/minister/simon-birmingham/transcript/interview-abc-radio-canberra-am-sabra-lane-2>.
 Simon Birmingham, ‘Reports of potential tariffs on Australian barley imports into China’, May 10 2020 <https://www.trademinister.gov.au/minister/simon-birmingham/media-release/reports-potential-tariffs-australian-barley-imports-china>.
 Michael Smith, ‘China launches anti-dumping probe into Australian barley imports’, The Australian Financial Review, November 19 2018 <https://www.afr.com/world/asia/china-launches-antidumping-probe-into-australian-barley-imports-20181119-h181zp>.
 Ainslie Chandler, ‘China suspends meat imports from four Australian abattoirs’, Bloomberg, May 11 2020 <https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-05-11/china-tariff-threat-adds-to-australia-s-grain-industry-woes>.
 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, ‘Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian’s Regular Press Conference’, May 12 2020 <https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_665403/t1778378.shtml>.
 Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Continuation – Dumping and Subsidisation, Silicon metal from China’, May 18 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-archive-cases/524>.
 Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China, ‘商务部公布对原产于澳大利亚的进口大麦反倾销调查和反补贴调查的最终裁定(The Ministry of Commerce announces the final ruling on the anti-dumping and countervailing investigations against imported barley originating in Australia)', May 18 2020 <http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/ae/ai/202005/20200502965864.shtml>.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Investigation – Dumping and Subsidisation, Painted steel strapping from China, Vietnam’, May 27 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/553>.
 Ministry of Culture and Tourism，‘赴澳大利亚旅游安全提醒 (Safety reminder for travelling to Australia)', June 5 2020 <https://www.mct.gov.cn/zxbs/cxts/202006/t20200605_854150.htm>.
 Ministry of Education the People’s Republic of China, ‘MOE issues first warning statement in 2020 for students preparing to study abroad’, June 10 2020 <http://en.moe.gov.cn/news/press_releases/202006/t20200619_467021.html>.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Investigation – Dumping and Subsidisation, Aluminium zinc coated steel (<600mm) from China, Vietnam’, June 30 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/559>.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Continuation – Dumping, Steel reinforcing bar from China’, July 10 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/560>.
 Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Investigation – Dumping and Subsidisation, Copper tube from China, Korea’, July 13 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/557>.
 Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ‘Continuation – Dumping, Rod in coil from China’, July 27 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/regulations-and-standards/anti-dumping-and-countervailing-system/anti-dumping-commission-current-cases/562>.
 Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China, ‘商务部公告2020年第34号 关于对原产于澳大利亚的进口相关葡萄酒进行反倾销立案调查的公告 (Announcement of the Ministry of Commerce No. 34 of 2020 on the anti-dumping investigation of imported wine originating in Australia)’, August 18 2020 <http://trb.mofcom.gov.cn/article/cs/202008/20200802993244.shtml>.
 China Mengniu Dairy Company Limited, ‘Termination of the proposed acquisition of Lion-Dairy & Drinks PTY LTD’, August 25 2020 <http://www.mengniuir.com/attachment/2020082508240166999410317_en.pdf>.
 Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Australia, ‘Interview with Kieran Gilbert, Sunday Agenda, Sky News’, August 30 2020 <https://ministers.treasury.gov.au/ministers/josh-frydenberg-2018/transcripts/interview-kieran-gilbert-sunday-agenda-sky-news-0>.
 General Administration of Customs China, ‘产品检出禁用药物 海关总署暂停澳大利亚1家牛肉企业对华出口(Prohibited drugs detected, General Administration of Customs suspends exports of an Australian beef company to China)’, August 27 2020 <http://www.customs.gov.cn/customs/xwfb34/302425/3260606/index.html>
 Ministry of Commerce People’s Republic of China, ‘MOFCOM initiates a countervailing investigation on certain imported wines originating from Australia’, September 2 2020 <http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/article/newsrelease/significantnews/202009/20200902998229.shtml>.
 General Administration of Customs China，‘大麦检出检疫性有害生物海关总署暂停澳大利亚1家企业对华出口 (Quarantine pests detected in barley, General Administration of customs suspends exports of an Australian company to China)’, September 2 2020 <http://www.customs.gov.cn/customs/xwfb34/302425/3266263/index.html>.
 Jenna Ma and Jessie Li, ‘Chinese state-owned end-users given verbal notice to stop importing Australian coal:sources’, S&P Global Platts, October 9 2020 <https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/coal/100920-chinese-state-owned-end-users-given-verbal-notice-to-stop-importing-australian-coal-sources>.
 Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, ’Anti-dumping notice no. 2020/103’, October 12 2020 <https://www.industry.gov.au/sites/default/files/adc/public-record/543_-_062_-_notice_adn_-_adn_2020-103_-_findings_in_realtion_to_continuation_inquiry.pdf>.
 James Thornhill and David Stringer, ‘Australia seeks confirmation of reported China coal import ban’, Aljazeera, October 13 2020 <https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2020/10/13/australia-seeks-confirmation-of-reported-china-coal-import-ban>.
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